Reduced 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease after participating in a lifestyle programme in primary care
Background: Despite well-known preventive effects for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk through lifestyle changes, scientific evaluations of lifestyle programmes in primary care are scarce. Moreover, structured lifestyle counselling is still not integrated in everyday clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate change in cardiovascular risk factors and Framingham 10-year risk score of developing CVD in men and women at high cardiovascular risk after participation in a structured lifestyle programme over 1 year. A single-group study was carried out with a 1-year follow-up including before and after measurements.
Methods: The lifestyle programme comprised five appointments to a district nurse over 1 year, focussing on lifestyle habits based on motivational interviewing. Fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and 1-year follow-up. The 10-year risk of CVD was calculated according to Framingham general CVD risk score.
Results: A total of 404 patients were included in the study. There was a positive change over 1 year in the total study population for all risk factors evaluated. This included improvements in weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids, and fasting glucose. The 10-year risk of developing CVD decreased for the total population from 24.8% to 21.4% at 1 year, equivalent to a 14% decrease.
Conclusions: A structured lifestyle programme in primary care contributes to significant improvements of cardiovascular risk factors and the reduction of 10-year risk for CVD for both men and women at high cardiovascular risk.
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