SPISE and other fasting indexes of insulin resistance: risks of coronary heart disease or type 2 diabetes. Comparative cross-sectional and longitudinal aspects

  • Jan Cederholm Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences/Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  • Björn Zethelius Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences/Geriatrics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Keywords: Coronary heart disease, HOMA, insulin clamp, insulin resistance, QUICKI, SPISE, type 2 diabetes

Abstract

Background: Fasting insulin resistance indexes are used extensively nowadays. We intended to analyze a new recently presented fasting index, SPISE (sensitivity formula: 600 × HDL-cholesterol0.185/triglycerides0.2/BMI1.338), in comparison with three previously known fasting indexes, regarding correlation with the insulin clamp index, and for the predictive effects of future long-term risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) or manifest type 2 diabetes.

Methods: A total of 1049 71-year-old male subjects from the Swedish ULSAM study, median follow-up 8 years, were included. All subjects performed the euglycemic insulin clamp, and analyses of four fasting insulin resistance indexes: SPISE-IR (= 10/SPISE), QUICKI-IR, Log HOMA-IR, and Revised QUICKI-IR.

Results: Spearman correlation coefficients with the insulin clamp were 0.60–0.62 for all indexes. Area under curve at ROC analysis was 0.80 for SPISE-IR, and 0.84 for QUICKI-IR, Log HOMA-IR, and Rev QUICKI-IR. Adjusted hazard ratios per 1 SD index increase for long-term risk CHD were similar in all patients: 1.20–1.24 (p = 0.02–0.03). However, comparing the highest quartile (recommended to define insulin resistance) with the lower quartiles, SPISE-IR was the strongest and the only statistically significant insulin resistance index: HR 1.53 (p = 0.02). Adjusted odds ratios per 1 SD index increase for long-term risk of type 2 diabetes were fairly similar (p < 0.001) in all patients: 1.62 for SPISE-IR, 1.97 for QUICKI-IR and Log HOMA-IR, and 2.04 for Rev QUICKI-IR, and also when comparing the highest versus the lower quartiles: 2.8–3.1 (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: SPISE, easily applicable, performed equally well as other fasting insulin indexes previously recommended for clinical use, regarding correlation with the insulin clamp, and as predictor for future long-term risks of CHD or type 2 diabetes.

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Published
2019-11-07
How to Cite
Cederholm, J., & Zethelius, B. (2019). SPISE and other fasting indexes of insulin resistance: risks of coronary heart disease or type 2 diabetes. Comparative cross-sectional and longitudinal aspects. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 124(4), 265–272. https://doi.org/10.1080/03009734.2019.1680583
Section
Original Articles