Goitre and Deaf-Mutism
The occurrence of congenital deafness, mutism and goitre unassociated with cretinism or mental retardation in euthyroid patients is known as Pendred's Syndrome. It has been estimated that 4–10% of children with congenital deafness suffer from this condition. The perceptive hearing loss is considered to be present at birth although it is frequently not recognized for several years. The cause of the hearing defect is a congenital bilateral malformation of the cochlea of the Mondini type. The goitre is not recognized clinically at birth or in early childhood. It becomes apparent in the pre-pubertal years when it presents as a colloid enlargement progressing to a nodular goitre. The thyroid defect has been shown to be a partial defect in iodine organification leading to the underproduction of thyroxine and subsequent thyroid hyperplasia. The syndrome is caused by a single mutant recessive gene responsible for both the deafness and goitre. Its autosomal mechanism gives an equal incidence in both sexes, unusual in thyroid disease. This article reviews the current aspects of pathogenesis and treatment of this syndrome and reports its occurrence in two Sudanese siblings.
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