Effects of extensive bleeding in pigs on laboratory biomarkers
Background: During hemorrhage and resuscitation, clinical and laboratory monitoring is useful to guide further management. However, acute changes in the biochemistry due to blood loss and subsequent crystalloid fluid resuscitation have not been fully studied.
Materials and methods: Twelve anesthetized, juvenile pigs were used. Atraumatic exsanguination, corresponding to a total blood loss of 40%, was performed through a catheter and completed 2 h after initiation of the experiment. Arterial samples were analyzed by point-of-care testing and venous samples were analyzed. Oxygen delivery was calculated.
Results: Shortly after 40% hemorrhage and concomitant fluid supplementation, there were significant reductions in arterial hemoglobin and hematocrit (approximately 25%, respectively). Oxygen delivery was less than half of the baseline value. Lactate in arterial blood was more than doubled after 40% exsanguination. On average, no other clinically significant changes in any of the analytes were observed, but interindividual dispersion was pronounced.
Conclusions: Acute exsanguination was associated with decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and increased lactate levels but limited effects on the other biomarkers that were studied. Increased levels of biomarkers in severely bleeding patients could indicate tissue damage and the source should be further investigated.
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