Evidence of Cerebral Dysfunction Associated with Isoflurane- or Propofol Based Anaesthesia for Orthognathic Surgery, as Assessed by Biochemical and Neuropsychological Methods
A relationship has previously been described between individual mean isoflurane concentrations and the release of a marker of neuronal injury, adenylate kinase (AK), into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after anaesthesia and orthognathic surgery. Likewise, reduced mental performance has been detected.
Twenty-nine patients scheduled for orthognathic surgery were assigned to isoflurane- or propofol based anaesthesia, which was adjusted to a defined level with the aid of processed EEG and quantitative surface EMG. In the case of a mean arterial pressure (MAP) <50 mmHg a phenylephrine infusion was started to keep the MAP above the minimal level, otherwise no regard was paid to the blood pressure, which never exceeded normal values. A lumbar puncture for CSF sampling was performed approximately 20 h postoperatively. The CSF sample was analysed for AK activity. Neuropsychological tests were performed the day prior to surgery and again in the period 4–8 weeks postoperatively. Five patients were re-examined by psychometry 12–30 months later.
A release of AK into CSF was confirmed, equal in both groups. Correlation with the anaesthetic dose given was poor. Five patients from each group failed significantly in the postoperative neuropsychological tests. They differed in several demographic respects from the others. When five of the failed patients were re-examined 12–30 months later, three patients still performed poorly in the tests.
Biochemical and neuropsychological disturbances were recorded in several patients objected to orthognathic surgery. The underlying mechanisms are unclear, including the role of the anaesthetic drugs or surgery itself.
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