Reference Values for Lung Function Tests in Men: Regression Equations with Smoking Variables
Prediction formulas for static and dynamic spirometry, gas distribution, static lung mechanics and the transfer test were derived from measurements in healthy men. The measurements included total lung capacity, residual volume, airways resistance, static elastic recoil pressure of the lung, static compliance, closing volume, slope of the alveolar plateau (phase III), flow-volume variables (including mean transit time) during breathing of air or a helium/oxygen mixture, and conventional spirometric indices. The results from 146 smokers and 124 never-smokers were evaluated separately and combined. For all lung function tests a single regression equation was obtained. The prediction formulas included time-related smoking variables and were valid for both smokers and never-smokers. For many lung function tests, a nonlinear age coefficient resulted in a significant reduction in variance compared with simple linear models. Heavy tobacco smoking influenced most lung function tests less than ageing from 20 to 70 years, but for airways resistance, transfer factor and phase III the opposite was found.
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